In an open culture, the highest good is the cumulative well-being of the society as a whole.
A just culture is a culture in which errors made in flight are never prosecuted in order to encourage pilots to openly communicate them.
An informed culture actively collects, analyses and distributes safety-related data.
In a flexible culture, committed errors can be voiced without risking negative consequences for oneself.
Dr James Reason has suggested that safety culture consists of five elements:
- An informed culture
- A reporting culture
- A learning culture
- A just culture
- A flexible culture
Informed culture. The organization collects and analyses relevant data, and actively disseminates safety information. This is the most effective culture towards risk management, as more data can be provided to manage/reduce future risks.
Reporting culture. An organizational climate in which people are prepared to report their errors and near-misses.
Learning culture. An organization must possess the willingness and the competence to draw the right conclusions from its safety information system and the will to implement major reforms.
Just culture. An atmosphere where errors and unsafe acts will not be punished if the error was unintentional. However, those who act recklessly or take deliberate and unjustifiable risks will still be subject to disciplinary action.
Flexible culture. A culture in which an organisation is able to reconfigure themselves in the face of high tempo operations or certain kinds of danger – often shifting from conventional hierarchical mode to a flatter mode.
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