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The load factor is less than 1 (one):
  • A
    when lift is greater than weight.
  • B
    during a steady horizontal turn.
  • C
    during a wings level stall before recovery.
  • D
    in steady wings level horizontal flight.

Refer to figure.
The balance of forces in steady climb show thrust is partly acting upwards and weight is partly adding to the drag.
Because the thrust is now assisting lift, there is less lift required than in level flight.
For steady speed, the thrust and two effects of aerodynamic drag and weight must be equal.

T= Thrust
W= Weight
D= Drag
T= D + W sin(gamma)

This means that the climb angle (sin gamma) depends on excess thrust and weight.
In descent the formula will become T= D – W sin(gamma)
The load factor is the relationship between lift and weight.
As the lift in a stall is decreased and the load factor in straight and level flight is 1, the load factor will now be less than 1.

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  • Austro Control