When taking-off, in winter conditions, the wing contamination by ice, snow or frost will cause the following effects:
1 – an increase in the take-off distance
2 – a decrease of the take-off run
3 – an increase in the stalling speed
4 – a decrease of the stalling speed
5 – a decrease of the best climb gradient
The combination regrouping all of the correct statements is:
- An ice-contaminated wing will stall at a lower angle of attack or higher airspeed than a clean wing (increased stall speed).
- The additional weight of the ice or snow adds to the total weight of the aircraft, increasing the lift required for the aircraft to take off. Consequently, the take-off distance also increases.
- The formation of frost, ice or snow also changes the airflow over the wing, reducing the overall lift a wing can produce. As a result, the best climb gradient will be negatively affected (the climb gradient will decrease).
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