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When taking-off, in winter conditions, the wing contamination by ice, snow or frost will cause the following effects:

1 – an increase in the take-off distance
2 – a decrease of the take-off run
3 – an increase in the stalling speed
4 – a decrease of the stalling speed
5 – a decrease of the best climb gradient

The combination regrouping all of the correct statements is:

  • A
    2, 3, 5
  • B
    2, 4, 5
  • C
    1, 3, 5
  • D
    1, 2, 3
Take-off must not be attempted when ice, snow or frost is present or adhering to the wings, propellers, control surfaces, engine inlets or other critical surfaces. Any deposit of ice, snow or frost on the external surfaces of an aeroplane may drastically affect its performance due to the reduced aerodynamic lift and increased drag resulting from the disturbed airflow.
  • An ice-contaminated wing will stall at a lower angle of attack or higher airspeed than a clean wing (increased stall speed).
  • The additional weight of the ice or snow adds to the total weight of the aircraft, increasing the lift required for the aircraft to take off. Consequently, the take-off distance also increases.
  • The formation of frost, ice or snow also changes the airflow over the wing, reducing the overall lift a wing can produce. As a result, the best climb gradient will be negatively affected (the climb gradient will decrease).

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This question has appeared on the real examination, you can find the related countries below.

  • Austro Control