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A moist, stable layer of air is forced to rise against a mountain range and the stability does not change. Which of the following phenomena may develop?
  • A
    Areas of severe turbulence on the upwind side of the mountain.
  • B
    Stratified clouds.
  • C
    Showers and thunderstorms.
  • D

As the airflow encounters the mountain range, it is forced to rise; this is referred to as Orographic Lift. As the air mass gains altitude it quickly cools down adiabatically, which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create Orographic clouds (clouds that develop in response to the forced lifting of air by the earth's topography).

- The type of clouds which will be formed depend on the type of air mass:

  • Stable (layer type of clouds will form - STRATIFORM) - great horizontal extension, little vertical development: ST, SC,AS,NS,CI,CS.
  • Unstable (heap type of clouds - CUMULIFORM) - extensive vertical extension: CU,TCU,CB,AC,CC.

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