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According to the TEM model, different types of countermeasures exist to prevent errors. GPWS alerts and SOPs are examples of:

  • A

    Automation-based countermeasures.

  • B
    Liveware-based countermeasures.
  • C

    Hard-based countermeasures.

  • D
    Rule-based countermeasures.

Flight crews must, as part of the normal discharge of their operational duties, employ countermeasures to keep threats, errors and undesired aircraft states from reducing margins of safety in flight operations. Examples of countermeasures would include checklists, briefings, call-outs and SOPs, as well as personal strategies and tactics.

Some countermeasures to threats, errors and undesired aircraft states that flight crews employ build upon “hard” resources provided by the aviation system. These resources are already in place in the system before flight crews report for duty, and are therefore considered as systemic-based countermeasures. The following would be examples of “hard” resources that flight crews employ as systemic-based countermeasures:

  • Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS)
  • Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS)
  • Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs)
  • Checklists
  • Briefings
  • Training
  • Etc

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