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Which of the following statements is true concerning regular physical exercise:

1. it increases pulse rate and stroke volume in the short term
2. it reduces blood pressure and heart rate in the long term
3. it reduces the human susceptibility to hypoxia.

  • A
    1, 3.
  • B
    1, 2.
  • C
    1, 2 and 3
  • D

Many people know that regular exercise can aid in weight loss, improve your mood, and boost energy. But did you know that exercise has both short and long term effects on the cardiovascular system? The cardiovascular system delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body, and consists of the heart and the blood vessels.

Short Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System

Many short-term effects take place during physical activity, including:

  • Faster heart contractions. This leads to an increased heart rate and increased circulation, which gets oxygenated blood to your muscles quicker.
  • More forceful heart contractions with each heartbeat, which leads to a greater amount of blood being pumped throughout the body.

Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Cardiovascular System

A fairly well conditioned athlete can see long term cardiovascular effects from exercising in as little as two weeks. People who are just beginning to exercise will see effects in up to four weeks. These effects include:

  • The heart and lungs become more efficient as your cardiovascular training increases.
  • Decreased resting heart rate, which means your heart doesn’t have to beat as often to circulate blood.
  • Improved ability to draw in deeper and longer breaths, and take fewer breaths.
  • Reduced risk of heart disease.

"3. it reduces the human susceptibility to hypoxia." Correct. Regular exercise conditions the individual's body to increase the number of red blood cells, which improves the oxygenation of the body - resulting in a higher tolerance to altitude hypoxia.

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