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The Ground Wave propagates as follows:
  • A
    The wave will be reflected at the ionosphere back to the ground.
  • B
    It travels along the earth’s surface and follows the curvature of the earth.
  • C
    The ground wave is transmitted toward the earth’s surface and will be reflected.
  • D
    It travels beneath the ground.

To understand the meaning of ground wave propagation, it is important to understand the meaning of radio wave propagation. Radio wave propagation is the behaviour of radio waves as they propagate from one point to another or into various parts of the atmosphere.

These waves propagation can be classified depending upon the frequencies as:

Ground waves propagation

Skywave propagation

Free space propagation

Ground wave propagation is a type of radio propagation which is also known as a surface wave. These waves propagate over the earth’s surface in low and medium frequencies. These are mainly used for transmission between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere. These are made up of the number of constituent waves. The reason why it is known as a ground wave is that it is the sum of the waves that are reflected by the earth’s surface or any hills. The waves follow the curvature of the earth enabling them to cover beyond the horizon. Beyond the horizon, the waves get blocked by the curvature of the earth and the signals are produced by the diffracted surface wave.

Advantages of Ground Wave Propagation

These waves have the tendency to bend around the corners or obstructions during propagation which makes them more efficient and also these are not affected by the change in atmospheric conditions.

Disadvantages of Ground Wave Propagation

High-frequency waves cannot be transmitted as the energy losses are more because of the absorption of energy in the earth’s atmosphere.

These are used to cover short ranges and also involves attenuation of waves as they interact with the eddy currents produced by the surface of the earth.

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