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Identifying landmarks and overall orientation and visualisation of the inflight situation on a VFR flight can be made easy by:
  • A
    Holding the complete map with North-up orientation.
  • B
    Holding the complete map with track-up orientation.
  • C
    Holding a relevant part of the map with track-up orientation.
  • D
    Holding only a small part of the map with North-up orientation.

In VFR flights, the aeronautical chart consists the basis of VFR navigation. One of the most common methods to navigate under VFR is by selecting, during the pre-flight planning procedure, the ground features, which are marked on the VFR chart and then seeking for them on the ground during the flight.

The VFR charts depict topographic features and other information of interest to pilots flying visually, such as major landmarks, terrain elevations, visual navigation routes, ground-based navigation aids, airports, rivers, cities, airspace boundaries, etc.

During VFR navigation, the cadets are usually instructed to hold the map oriented to the direction of flight, so that the surrounding topographic features can be easily identified, i.e. hold the map so that direction of flight is at the top (not North), also known as "track-up", so "right" on the map will correspond to "right" on the ground and map reading will be easier.

Using the chart “track-up”, gives the best situational awareness to the crew and it can also be useful to check if the aircraft is on the planned position by checking if the ground features coincide with your expectations.

Also, for convenience during flight, it is not necessary to hold the whole navigation chart, but it is preferred to hold only a a relevant with the trip part of the whole chart, so as not to reduce the pilot's field of view and handling effectiveness.

"North-up" map orientation is mainly suggested for flight planning.

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