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What aircraft equipment is required to perform dependent parallel approaches onto parallel runways?
  • A
    Standard IFR navigation equipment.
  • B
    IFR navigation equipment with ILS/MLS capabilities.
  • C
    RNP-APCH certified equipment.
  • D
    RNAV/RNP certified equipment.

Refer to figure.
ICAO Doc. 8168 (PANS-OPS) Vol. 3 states that independent/dependent parallel approaches may be conducted using any combination of three-dimensional (3D) instrument approaches. Furthermore, ICAO doc. 9643 contains the table in the above annex for the specific approaches that can be carried out during dependent parallel approaches. Mode 1 means independent, mode 2 means dependent.

Before the invention of APV approaches (approaches with vertical guidance) and GLS (GBAS Landing Systems), ILS and MLS were the only available 3D approaches, known as precision approaches. The vast majority of parallel approaches still occur using ILS/MLS (but MLS is very rare).

Dependent parallel approaches occur with radar separation, whereas independent parallel approaches do not need to be radar spaced, only monitored to make sure no aircraft enters the no-transgression zone (NTZ).

Even though an aircraft could partake in dependent parallel approaches without ILS/MLS capabilities, this answer is still far more correct than the other available answers, which are not capable of performing such approaches (RNP APCH could technically manage for some approaches, but would need a specific individual assessment).

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