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Which of the following sets of factors will increase the climb-limited TOM (every factor considered independently)?
  • A
    Low flap setting, low PA, low OAT.
  • B
    High flap setting, low PA, low OAT.
  • C
    Low flap setting, high PA, low OAT.
  • D
    Low flap setting, high PA, high OAT.

The takeoff climb or flight path typically extends from 35 feet above the takeoff surface to 1 500 feet above the surface. However, during a contaminated runway takeoff, the takeoff climb begins at 15 feet instead of 35 feet. The reference zero point is the location on the ground directly below the 35-foot screen.

The takeoff climb has two main requirements that must be met in the event of an engine failure at VEF, as engine failure must be accounted for in all flight phases for Class A aircraft. Firstly, the aircraft must be able to achieve the minimum climb gradients, and secondly, it must maintain sufficient obstacle clearance.

Summary of some factors that can increase the Climb limited take-off mass, which in turn increases the maximum achievable climb gradient. These factors include:

  1. Lower flap setting: Extended flaps or gear beyond their normal retraction points cause additional drag, which reduces excess thrust and takeoff climb performance (which reduces climb gradient). Therefore, a lower flap setting positively affects the Climb limited take-off mass.

  2. Higher air density: Air density is typically higher at lower airport elevations, resulting in more thrust being available (depending on the engine). Conversely, lower air density results in a lower climb gradient, leading to a lower Climb limited take-off mass.

  3. Lower outside air temperature: Lower temperatures increase air density, which improves climb gradient. This concept is similar to the effect of higher air density at lower airport elevations.

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